Water Softeners


Water is considered ‘hard’ when it has excessive levels of calcium and magnesium dissolved in it. Hard water can lead to the following water problems:

  • Scale build-up in pipes, resulting in decreased flow rates.

  • Scale build-up on heating and cooling systems, leading to increased electricity costs and breakdowns.

  • White film on glass surfaces and staining on water taps.

  • Increased laundry costs due to hard water reacting with soap and laundry detergents.


How to Treat Hard Water

Hard water can be treated using a distillation or reverse osmosis process. These processes are generally not used for softening purposes because of their relatively high capital and running costs. The most commonly used equipment for the treatment of hard water is an ion exchange water softener.

How They Work

A water softener reduces hardness in water by removing the calcium and magnesium ions in the water, and replacing them with sodium ions, which do not lead to any form of scale build-up or precipitation.

A standard water softener consists of 2 vessels. The first vessel contains a sodium coated zeolite ion exchange resin. Water passes through the resin vessel under pressure, flowing over the softener resin, which attracts the calcium and magnesium ions to its surface, exchanging them for sodium ions.

Once the softener resin has reached the end of its service cycle and can hold no more calcium and magnesium, the water softener automatically starts a regeneration cycle, drawing a solution of brine from the second vessel, the brine tank, into the softener resin vessel. The brine solution washes the softener resin, causing the calcium and magnesium ions to be washed to drain, and the resin to be regenerated with sodium ions.

After a period of time (90-180 minutes, depending on the softener size and configuration), the resin vessel automatically rinses itself with clean water and switches back into service, ready to start softening water again. The system also automatically adds more water to the salt in the brine tank to produce more brine for the next regeneration cycle.

All water softeners supplied by CWC are fully automatic. The only operator assistance required is the addition of salt to the softener’s brine tank occasionally.


  • Corrosion resistant resin and brine tank construction.
  • Timer-based automatic regeneration.
  • Softening media-high quality softener resin provides stability and uniform size for top performance and long life.
  • Accurate brine control- a single turn of the brine control sets the brine dosage and capacity.
  • Blend valve to allow accurate set-up of soft & hard water mixing.
  • Simple inline configuration for ease of installation and maintenance.
  • Range of softener systems to suit household, commercial and industrial applications.
  • Available in simplex and duplex configurations for intermittent or continuous use.


  • Operating pressure: 200-600 kPa
  • Vacuum: none. Tank warranty is void if subject to vacuum. Vacuum breakers are recommended with all fiberglass tanks.
  • Power supply: 220 VAC 50Hz
  • Temperature range (water temp): 5-35°C
  • Turbidity: 5.0 NTU max.
  • Chlorine: 1.0 mg/l max.
  • Iron: 5 mg/l max.

Applications and Benefits

  • Reverse Osmosis & Deionizer pretreatment.
  • Apartment buildings, assisted living facilities and hotels-quality water for laundry, dishwashers, boilers.
  • Office buildings-For heating plant pretreatment, tenant convenience and general housekeeping.
  • Restaurants-For dishwashing, cleaning materials savings, scale reduction.
  • Car washes-quality results, detergent and water heating savings, scale reduction.
  • Industry-For process and make-up water, boiler and cooling system pretreatment, general housekeeping.

Design Considerations

In order to accurately size a water softener for your residential, commercial or industrial application, we will need to know the following:

  • The amount of water you expect to use per 24-hour period.
  • Your peak water demand.
  • Operating hours per day.
  • Your water pressure.
  • The hardness of your water.
  • What you plan to use softened water for.

Your local approved CWC distributor can help you calculate your softened water needs, and can arrange for a professional water analysis to be taken. For more information about water softeners and how the water softening process can help you in your home or business, contact CWC today.



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